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COLOGNA (VENETA, since 1867) comes from Colonia was founded on the banks of Flumen Novum river. Which presently is Guà. The finding of some artifacts near Baldaria has often led us to believe that this area had already been inhabited since the ending of the 5th century b.C..
It was devastated by nature because of the flooding if the Adige river that changed its course in this very land; Colonia was also destroyed by several Barbarian tribes. Longobardi settled down in this area for two centuries (568-774). When in 1000 it became feud belonging to Vicenza Bishops, Colonia was given to Maltraverso Counts and then to Malacapella Counts.
In 1204 other people arrived: the da Estes, noble family from Ferrara; in 1239 it fell into the hands EzzelinoIII da Romano, royal vicar and cruel tyrant. In 1256 the town dwellers of Cologna Veneta rose up against Ezzelino III thanks to the guide of Jacopo Bonfado: they succeded in finding their own freedom merely by paying with a death toll.
Afterwards, the noble family of della Scala arrived in Cologna Veneta. The whole urban center was enclosed by a boundary veronese wall, characterized by twelve towers and by a fortress. The Veronesi were succeeded by Visconti from Milan, but after the death of Gian Galeazzo (1401), Cologna was to be part of the feud belonging to da Carrara from Padua. The “lagunari” –people coming from the Venice lagoon – had the power of eliminating Cologna politically since they aimed at considering it as territory of the mainland.
In April 1406, the doge Michele Steno admitted Cologna to “Dogado” and in the end it was registered as Sestiere d’Ossoduro.
For almost 400 years, thanks to the power of Serenissima – the Republic of Venice – Cologna showed great development and deserved peace. This atmosphere was interrupted by Napoleon in 1797. With the following treaty of Campoformio, Cologna was to be part of the Austrian territory – just like most of the land of Veneto.
Cologna (Veneta since 1897) comes from Colonia – clear reference to a Roman and agricultural colony, rose in the banks of The Flumen Novum _ New River- whch today is the rover Guà ( whose name has been often changed various times and which flows into the Adriatic Sea).
The discovery of artifacts of the Civiltà of Fiorano near the area of Baldaria –which can be found in the Archeological and civic Museum of Cologna – induces us to believe that the area on which Cologna rises, had already been inhabited at the end of the Vth century B.C. Thanks to its contiguity with the territory of Este (Padua) and in light of the discovery of a necropolis close to Baldaira, Colgna is said to have been inhabited by Euganei and by Veneti (VII-VI century B.C)
This village had Roman origins: its territory was characterized by an agrarian division that was ordered by the emperor Ottavaino Augusto since his soldiers were given lands after the victories in Azio, against Anthony and Cleopatra. Thank to Rome, Cologna was to be part of the ager Atestinus of Este (1st century b.C.).
It was devastated by nature because of flooding if the Adige river that changed its course in this very land; Colonia was also destroyed by several Barbarians tribes. Longobardi, after the conquest of Padua in 602, founded the Dukedom of Vicenza and thus the whole territory of Cologna was politically admitted. The dominion of Longobardi lasted for two centuries.
After the dominion of the Franchi, between the eighth and the tenth century and after the devastations caused the Hungarians, the territory became “physical property” which means it became feud of the Bishops of Vicenza. After the year 1000, Cologna was offered to the counts Maltraverso. With Guidone, the following descendants were called Malacapella.
In 1204, the Counts from Este, the noble family from Ferrara, achieved Cologna but in 1239 –during the dispute between papacy and the emperor Federico II from Svevia – Cologna fell into the hands of Ezzelino III from Romano, his imperial vicar, a cruel tyrant who spread terror and blood in all the lands of Lombradia and Veneto.
In 1220 even Saint Francis from Assisi had the chance to visit Cologna.
In 1256 thanks to the presence of JacopoBonfado, the inhabitants of Cologna rose up against Ezzelino III: they were to pay tribute with their own blood, but in the end they found freedom from the tyrant.
After that, the noble family della Scala arrived in Cologna: it is in this period that the whole urban center was enclosed by city walls, formed by twelve towers and by the fortress whhic had a four-cornered shape.
The veronese were succeeded by Viscounts from Milan in 1387: they were trying to conquer all the northern and central part of Italy but after the death of Gian Galeazzo (1401), Cologna was to be part of the feud belonging to da Carrara from Padua (1402). In the meantime though, considering that Euganei family had proclaimed war against Venice, the “lagunari” – people from the lagoon of Venice – fought them and thus Cologna was to be part of the domain of the mainland.
In 1817 Gianntonio Selva inaugurated the neo-classical Dome on the ancient Verona fortress. On that occasion there was also Antonio Diedo who had designed the old bell-tower with its beautiful Venetian style.
The facade of the dome is based on a structure of smooth ashlar opened by three main entrances and by a horizontal gable. In the internal part, the dome is characterized by barrel lowered vaults. This dome houses important art proofs such as one of the shovels belonging to Bartolomeo Montagna (1522); an ivory crucifix of Andrea Brustolon, remarkable types of furniture and sacred vestments, safely guarded in the sacristy of the dome. Furthermore there are peculiar types of lace made by Suore Cappuccine – nuns of Cologna Veneta.
During the period of the Power of the Venice Republic, this Palace became the seat of the Mayor-Captain: it incorporates some old towers of the ancient town walls. In the XXth century it was restored and it was transformed into the City Hall. The project was submitted in 1987 – only the façade of Corso Guà is the result of pseudo-gothic intervention of the first years of the XXth century; the square beforehand was rebuilt by considering the example of the ancient River Course Flumen Novum– new river – according to the drawing of the engineer Loris Ravazzolo. In 1996 all the works of renovation were completed and the Palace of the praetor opened its doors to the all the citizens.
The civic, archeological museum was instituted in 1896 thanks to the diligent collect of different types of archeological artifacts of the parson of Baldaria, the high priest Bortolo Fochesato. It is important to underline that just here lies the ancient front of the church of Santa Giustina of the Vth century.
This museum was built also thanks to Cesare Gardellini – town’s clerk – and also thanks to the help and the patronage of the mayor Francesco Dea Piccini: it is the oldest museum of the province of Verona – without considering the museum of the main town, Verona. Since 1991 the museum is inside the building of Santo Monte di Pietà – the Saint Mount of Mercy, which dates back to 1853 in the square of the Dome